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      中國氫燃料電池汽車駛入快車道

      發布日期: 2018-10-25 信息來源: 電網新聞網

        能源看點

        科技部部長萬鋼近日在題為“未來出行――氫燃料電池及智能車輛技術”國際研討會上表示,氫能燃料電池目前在壽命、可靠性、使用性能上基本達到車輛使用要求,中國已初步掌握了相關核心技術,基本建立了具有自主知識產權的燃料電池汽車動力系統技術平臺。未來要加強協同創新,加快推動氫能燃料電池產業全面發展。

        體現綠色理念

        隱含發展難題

        燃料電池是一種將存在于燃料與氧化劑中的化學能直接轉化為電能的發電裝置。氫燃料電池是使用氫制造能量的電池。氫燃料電池與普通電池的區別主要在于:干電池、蓄電池是一種儲能裝置,是把電能貯存起來,需要時再釋放出來;而氫燃料電池嚴格地說是一種把化學能直接轉化為電能的發電裝置。

        我們不難發現,氫燃料電池不僅能量轉換效率高,只產生水和熱,對環境無污染,綠色環保,而且無振動、噪聲低、使用壽命長。同時,燃料電池所使用的氫燃料來源廣泛,可采用水分解制氫,也可以從可再生能源中獲得。相比純電動汽車的蓄電池,氫燃料電池充電時間要短得多,更換更便捷。

        中國電子科技集團公司第十八研究所的付甜甜,向筆者指出了氫燃料電池存在的三大局限:一是制氫儲氫技術復雜,價格昂貴;二是對密封性要求嚴格,使得燃料電池發動機的制造工藝相對復雜,使用、維護困難;三是由于燃料電池不能充電,氫燃料電動汽車必須配備輔助電池系統。

        奮起迎頭追趕

        奠定發展基礎

        付甜甜介紹,世界上第一輛可使用的氫燃料電池汽車是由通用汽車公司于1968年制造的。中國對發展氫燃料電池汽車也高度重視并取得了突出成就。早在1999年,清華大學就生產出了我國第一輛氫燃料電池觀光車。2001年,上汽集團攜手通用汽車公司合資的泛亞技術中心研制出“鳳凰”氫燃料電池電池汽車。“十五”期間,“863”重大專項中就明確指出要支持氫燃料電池汽車的研發,并給予項目資金支持。“十一五”和“十二五”期間,氫燃料電池被列為節能與新能源汽車重大項目的重點項目。據統計,到目前為止,我國共研發試制出200多輛燃料電池汽車在各個時間段進行示范運行,其中包括燃料電池客車、專用車及卡車、轎車。

        加大協同創新

        奔向10萬目標

        日常生活中,我們見到大街上跑的新能源汽車更多的是電動汽車,而燃料電池汽車與純電動汽車、混合動力汽車相比,知名度的確有待提高,其現實發展水平也與中國新能源汽車“三分天下有其一”的總體布局不相適應。

        在汽車安全與節能國家重點實驗室主任歐陽明高看來,造成氫燃料汽車發展相對較慢的根本原因在于核心技術沒有實現突破。他指出,氫燃料電池技術中最核心、最基礎的技術是膜電極,其重要性相當于電腦和手機的芯片,而國產膜電極在耐久性和性能上還有待提升。目前國產膜電極的壽命最高能達到8000小時,而國際上最好的水平是1萬小時以上,這直接決定了氫燃料電池的壽命。

        市場和技術的自然發育成長需要長期的過程。要較快破解上述發展難題,贏得發展先機,就必須在充分尊重市場規律的前提下,發揮政府這只“看得見的手”作用,給予燃料電池汽車特殊的鼓勵政策。為促進加氫站建設,2014年底,財政部、科技部等4部委發布通知,對符合國家技術標準且日加氫能力不少于200公斤的新建燃料電池汽車加氫站,中央財政給予每站獎勵400萬元。此后不到半年,4部委再次聯合發布通知,提出2017~2020年間,在對其他新能源汽車的補助標準實行必要的“退坡”背景下,中央財政對燃料電池汽車補助保持不變。

        根據2017年4月發布的《汽車產業中長期發展規劃》,2020~2030年,中國燃料電池汽車將迎來三大時間節點:2020年,在特定地區的公共服務車輛領域進行小規模示范應用;2025年,私人用車和公共服務用車領域批量應用,不低于1萬輛;2030年,在私人乘用車、大型商用車領域進行規模化推廣,不低于10萬輛。可以預見,中國氫燃料電池汽車正駛入發展快車道。

        轉自《人民日報海外版》7月26日10版,編輯有刪節

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